Nowadays the problem of air treatment has the prime importance. More and more people suffer from a great number of different kinds of emissions. Air pollution provokes the appearance of new diseases, it influences on every part of the environment.
The main problem of California is heavy-duty diesel trucks that now becomes a major source of NOx air pollution (nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide). It should be mentioned that NOx causes acid rains and forms smog reacting with volatile organic materials in the atmosphere. For example, today two Indian cities – Delhi and Kolkata reached the severe level of air quality, that is why they suffered from smog and tried reduce vehicle and industry emissions in an urgent order.
The government of California, in turn, develops new air pollution control regulations to reduce the level of air pollutants from diesel trucks. Scrubbing systems on board of a truck is the only solution for the air treatment. Thus, all the trucks built after 2010 must be equipped by an emission-scrubbing system for tackling NOx matter.
In spite of the fact that in most states of the USA it is not obligatory to retrofit or retire older engines that are able to operate up to 25 years, but in California air pollution control regulations are stricter, that is why by 2023, all heavy-duty diesel trucks must be equipped by a NOx-scrubbing system.
According to provisional data obtained from researchers at the University of California, truck engine built from 2010 or later emit 76 to 86% less NOx than older trucks that do not have any air scrubbing system. Consequently, heavy-duty diesel trucks are producing less of contaminants that provoke the appearance of acid rain and smog.
Nevertheless, these air scrubbers for trucks have one disadvantage. The researchers consider that diesel trucks fitted with the system emit nitrous oxide and ammonia that can not be regulated but is able to cause problems with water quality. But all the trucks do not exceed the limits established by the state government.
It remains unclear why these contaminants are present. The point is the operation of scrubbing systems is based on pumping a stream of urea into hot exhaust that then degrades into ammonia, which reduces the level of NOx emissions. The next reasons can be at the core:
- more ammonia production than is needed for NOx reduction;
- not efficient catalysts in the system resulting in incomplete NOx reduction;
- incomplete cooperation of the NOx scrubber and other systems.
Any way the level of such emissions is not critical, but may be consequential. Also, it takes time for the scrubbers to be improved for more aggressive air pollution regulation.
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