Combustible dust explosions must be eliminated as quickly and effectively as possible in any processing facility. All combustible as solids materials may entail a deflagration or explosion hazard in manufacturing and reduction processes of separation into fine particulates. Dust and other similar substances that contain organic materials and different types of metals are explosive. In order to minimize such combustible dust hazards, it is necessary to use the properly designed dust control equipment. In this regard, it is important to note that any uncontrolled process producing airborne dust may also pose serious health hazards for employees. Therefore, all facilities and their management personnel need to find the best dust control system for the safest and effective dust collection. Wet collectors, or “wet scrubbers”, and dry media dust collectors are two different technologies used to dust control during production processes.
Wet scrubbers include venturi scrubbers and cyclonic or centrifugal-type scrubbers capture dust by impingement with water droplets in contradistinction to the dry dust collectors as cyclone and media collectors as baghouses and cartridge collectors. The smaller the droplet, the more efficient the scrubber. One captured, the water and dust drop into a setting tank where they are separated by gravity or the dust is skimmed from the surface.
The design of any air pollution control device depends on the industrial process conditions and the nature of the air pollutants involved. Equipment designs may incorporate one or several of the following techniques to capture dust:
- spray nozzles
- cyclonic action
- venturi dispersion
- wet impingement configurations
Maintaining the scrubbers operation at the proper level is essential: the concentration of dust particles in the scrubbing fluid must be kept below five percent to maintain operating efficiency. The dust control efficiency of the wet scrubber is recommended for particles less than 10 microns, a centrifugal collector is recommended for particles above 10 microns because it will save a significant amount of energy. A meaningful difference between wet air scrubbers and dry dust collectors is the ability of wet scrubbers to control the combustibility of a dust: when combustible dust particles combine with the scrubbing liquid, they cannot contact oxygen, and the hazard is controlled. Dry collectors are at higher risk of a combustible dust explosion. Also, such collectors need more ancillary explosion equipment.
Wet air scrubbers that remove gaseous pollutants are referred to as absorbers. In order to obtain high removal efficiencies in absorbers, the good gas-to-liquid contact is crucial. The most common wet scrubber design is a wet scrubber with the packed tower and the plate tower. If the exhaust stream contains both particles and gases, wet air scrubbers are the only single air pollution control device that can remove both types of pollutants. Wet scrubbers are evaluated against fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators because:
- small space requirement (flue gases are cooled in wet scrubbers, resulting in a smaller overall size of equipment);
- no secondary dust sources (once particles are collected, they cannot escape from hoppers during transport);
- minimal fire and explosion hazards (various types of dry dust are flammable, using water eliminates the possibility of explosions);
- wet scrubbers have the ability to handle high temperature and moisture;
- wet scrubbers can remove both gases and particles;
- wet scrubbers can neutralize corrosive gases.
Multi-vortex wet air scrubber is a new type of wet air scrubber that is devoid of many wet air scrubber drawbacks while operating at the same efficiency. Multi-vortex wet air scrubber can replace any wet air scrubber as a whole, and in some cases, we can use old scrubber – primarily it’s body – as a basis for a Multi-vortex wet air scrubber system. Being a new type of wet scrubber, Multi-vortex wet air scrubber cleans air from gases, dust, vapors and other admixtures using water or other cleaning liquid. Multi-vortex wet air scrubber produces the cleaning mist differently from other scrubber systems, which results in running costs that are much lower than for a common wet scrubber.
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