Wet air scrubbers remain the main force for the capture and collection of particulates. Particulate scrubbers, often called Venturi scrubbers, are successful in removing particulates from exhaust gases with high efficiency. This type of dust control technology is a part of the group of air pollution controls collectively referred to as “wet scrubbers”. Venturi scrubbers are also known as Venturi jet scrubbers, gas-atomizing spray scrubbers, and ejector-venturi scrubbers. Properly designed and operated wet scrubbers are effectual in taking many regulated heavy metal compounds and some acid gases away with the help of special air treatment equipment. Scientists and engineers apply impingement trays or packed tower scrubbers for additional acid gas collection and also to subcool the gases after the removal of particulates from the gases through the use of Venturi scrubbers in their work. This minimizes the horsepower required by the induced draft fans. Venturi scrubbers have several advantages compared to other air pollution control equipment: such wet scrubbers are able to handle high-temperature gas streams or such gas streams that contain moisture. In addition to this, the overall size of dust control equipment is typically smaller, and Venturi wet air scrubbers have the potential for removing pollutant gases at the same time as particulates.
A standard Venturi scrubber is a combination of a converging section with a throat (the narrowest part of the whole tube), and with a diffuser. The mixture of dust and gas flows through the tube of the Venturi scrubber and reaches top speed in the throat section. This top speed drops again when the mixture passes into the diffuser. Intensive and concerted mixing takes place in the throat section between the gas and the liquid. Due to the high speed realized by the gas and liquid water is released into fine water droplets. The collection object in a typical Venturi scrubber is a liquid drop. The diameter of a liquid drop is a complicated function of velocity, liquid rate, and fluid properties. A centrifugal fan installed upstream (forced draft) or downstream (induced draft) provides the motive force to the gas stream carrying the PM (Particulate Matter). The gas is accelerated to the throat velocity in the converging inlet. After that, the gas passes through the throat where the PM encounters the liquid drops. It is necessary to mention that Venturi scrubbers themselves have a low volume: the droplet separator determines the dimensions of the installation. Such separator can be a few times larger than the scrubber.
The main task of Venturi scrubbers is remaining small particles from a gas stream but scrubbers of this type can also be used for larger particles, through energy use in relatively high in such cases. However, it should be noted, some types of dust cannot be separated even at very high-pressure drops. Venturi scrubbers are used for control PM emissions from utility, industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers fired with coal, oil, wood, and liquid waste. Such scrubbers are also used for control emission sources in the chemical, mineral products, wood, pulp and paper, rock products, and asphalt manufacturing industries. In addition, they are indispensable in lead, aluminum, iron and steel, and gray iron production industries.
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